When yachting, fishing, or operating commercial boats, you must understand how to maintain your marine engine. A clean and well-maintained diesel engine keeps every passenger on your boat safe, so proper boat maintenance is critical.
You want to understand everything about owning and caring for a marine engine, from how to maintain your engine cooling system to basic marine diesel engine maintenance. First, you should be aware of the typical costs of boat service, repair, and maintenance.
How Much Does Boat and Marine Service for Engine Maintenance Cost?
The cost of boat and marine engine maintenance and repairs is influenced by a number of factors. What you pay for engine and boat maintenance is determined by the following factors:
- The boat and engine types
- Who does the repair?
- The nature of the maintenance or repair
- Whether your engine requires a diagnosis
- The engine component that requires repair or maintenance.
Your location may also have an effect on the cost of marine engine repair, but in general, the problem with the engine, along with who repairs it, is the most important factor.
If you want to know how much boat maintenance costs if you hire a professional, contact them ahead of time to get an estimate. It’s a good idea to interview several repair companies to get an idea of the typical cost of the work you want done. While you want a good deal, you don’t want to go with the cheapest option.
Your boat requires routine maintenance and repair. Working with an inexperienced company or attempting to do the job yourself may result in more extensive repairs at a higher cost later on.
Knowing what you require for upkeep gives you an idea of how much you can expect to pay.
The Most Common Marine Engine Issues
Some marine engine issues are more prevalent than others. If you notice any problems with your boat or engine, it is possible that they are common. The following are some of the most common marine engine problems:
- Fuse failure
- Electrical connections that have corroded
- Alternators are loose.
- Belts with loops
- Fuel filter clogs
- Sea strainers that are clogged
- The presence of water or other materials in the fuel
- Impellers with damage
- Mufflers with holes
While some of these are simple fixes, others may be more involved. You may require new parts or assistance from an expert, including an engine rebuild, depending on the problem or combination of problems. However, some repairs and maintenance can be performed on your own.
Follow the Manual
Sometimes the answer to questions like “Do I need to change my boat oil every year?” ” or “How do I clean my marine engine?” ” are simple to locate. The boat’s manual may provide step-by-step instructions or otherwise guide you through the process of changing the boat’s oil or cleaning the engine.
When it comes to repairing your specific boat model, you don’t want to rely on general instructions or advice. Maintenance and repair procedures vary widely between models and engines. When in doubt, consult the instruction manual.
The manual will most likely contain the following information:
- Changing the oil filter: The type of oil filter to use in your marine diesel engine should be specified in your owner’s manual. You risk restricting oil flow throughout the engine if you use the incorrect one.
- Reinstalling the raw-water pump: Your manual may advise you to remove the impeller in the fall and replace it in the spring, which is an important part of engine maintenance. When reinstalling the pump, you should also consult your manual. Hose clamps should have a tightening sequence and torque specs. To avoid problems with the mechanism, follow the steps when reinstalling your raw-water pump.
- Re-torquing cylinder heads: This is something you should leave to the professionals. The frequency with which this maintenance should be performed should be specified in your manual. The frequency is determined by the number of hours your engine runs, so keep track of how often you use the boat.
Consider your manual to be the ultimate boat maintenance guide. If you have any questions, read the manual; you’ll almost certainly find an answer there.
Always keep records when performing maintenance tasks. Keeping repair and maintenance notes is good practice for any mechanical system, especially marine diesel engines. It allows you to see when a task was completed and can assist you in determining the source of an issue.
When it comes to repairs, here are a few things to keep track of:
- The date
- A breakdown of the problems
- What steps did you take to resolve the problem?
- Who was responsible for the maintenance or repair?
Keep the maintenance log in a safe place and update it whenever you perform anything from basic marine diesel engine maintenance to complex repairs. In another section of the log, you can make notes on engine hours of operation and create a repair calendar or schedule. Keeping track of how much use your marine engine has received will help you determine when it’s time to re-torque the cylinder heads or change the oil.
Anyone who uses or repairs your commercial boat will benefit from your maintenance and repair notes. If a driver notices a problem with the engine, they can check the notes to see if it is a recurring issue. A repairman can look over your notes to see if similar problems have occurred in the past or if previous maintenance work may have contributed to the current problem.
When Do You Need a Professional Marine Service?
While prior knowledge and a manual can help with some repairs and maintenance, some systems necessitate the assistance of a professional. When it comes to engine maintenance, hire someone with experience and the necessary tools to handle:
Valve adjustments: To keep everything running smoothly, any diesel engine requires periodic valve adjustments. Making a mistake when adjusting the valve of a marine engine can be disastrous, which is why it’s best to leave this to the professionals.
Re-torquing cylinder heads: After a certain number of hours of operation, you should have a professional re-torque the cylinder heads. A professional is aware of the specifications that must be followed during this process. To avoid causing damage to the engine, the specifications must be strictly followed.
Turbochargers: Because turbochargers help an engine’s power and efficiency, you don’t want to risk damaging them. They also require specific service specifications, which are best left to the pros.
Engine control modules (ECMs) and common-rail engines: A computer will be used by an expert to further inspect electronically controlled engines. You can perform basic service, but for more extensive repairs, consult an expert.
If you’re ever unsure what to do, your best bet is to contact someone who knows what they’re doing. You don’t want to risk damaging any part of your boat, especially if you use it for business.
How Often Should You Change Your Vessel’s Oil?
Changing the oil in a boat engine is a simple maintenance task that most people can handle on their own. Oil provides numerous benefits to a marine engine, including:
- System lubrication and friction reduction
- Cooling the pistons and cylinders
- Cylinder walls, turbochargers, and valve stems are all sealed.
- Keeping contaminants out
- Corrosion prevention
The frequency with which you should change the oil is partly determined by how frequently you use your boat. Generally, you should change the oil after a certain number of hours of use or before storing the boat for the winter. When changing the oil, you should also replace the filter, gaskets, and seals.
Check your oil level before each trip to ensure you have enough in the tank. You don’t want to risk running out of supplies.
Know Your Cooling System
The cooling system, along with fuel, lubrication, and electricity, is one of the four critical components of a marine diesel engine. A faulty cooling system can damage the entire engine.
A cooling system is made up of two main parts:
- The raw-water system: The raw-water system collects seawater for the rest of the engine system. Before leaving the system, the seawater cools your engine’s freshwater and exhaust gas. It enters the system via an inline pump and exits via the exhaust system.
- The freshwater system: The freshwater system supplies water to the turbocharger, cylinder jacket, and cycle head. Since the freshwater system is a closed-loop, it is cooled by raw water.
Other components keep the raw-water and freshwater systems running, just as the engine does. Clogged sea strainers are not only one of the most common marine engine issues, but also the leading cause of boat engine failure. This is accompanied by raw-water impeller failure.
An impeller in good working order should resemble a gear with rubbery veins. The part gradually absorbs seawater. As a result, the impeller and its veins become hardened, bent, or broken. If this happens, your engine will be unable to pump seawater into freshwater cooling systems and other systems.
The impeller’s veins are kept from hardening by removing it in the fall. You can reinstall it in the spring or replace it with a new one. To remove the impeller, you’ll need a socket wrench and a tool, but these are worthwhile purchases because this is a yearly maintenance task.
Focus on the pressure cap when caring for your freshwater system. Your engine may overheat if it lacks a proper seal, so choose a high-quality seal and install it correctly. Another easy maintenance fix is to replace the antifreeze every two years. To keep your marine engine running smoothly, use extended-life varieties and only mix with distilled water.
Some maintenance tasks should be left to the professionals. For example, every three years the heat exchanger must be removed for cleaning. You should have this device removed by a professional, but most engines allow you to do it yourself. But keep in mind that if you have an ECM or a common-rail engine, the entire process should be handled by a professional.
Maintain Your Fuel
What is the simplest way to maintain a diesel engine? Maintain a full fuel tank. A full tank aids in the prevention of microbial growth in the tank, which can damage the engine system. Other things you can do to maintain your fuel system:
Maintaining the fuel filter: Check the inspection bowl before every trip. If there is any water, drain it and restart it. If the bowl fills with water the second time you inspect it, you’ll have to replace the fuel. If you need to replace the fuel filter in your engine, the owner’s manual should tell you what type to use.
Bleeding the fuel system: A boat’s engine suffers from air in the fuel system. Since it will cause the engine to shut down, you must know how to bleed the fuel system to remove air. After loosening the screw on the filter, you should be able to access a hand pump. Pump until only fuel exits the system. If that doesn’t work, you’ll need to use a fuel line wrench to vent the fuel-injection piping.
Cleaning up spills: Spilled fuel could be hazardous to others or damaging to your boat. After refueling or maintaining your marine engine’s fuel system, check for any spills. Use dish detergent to help break down and clean up the diesel. While a spill doesn’t impact your fuel system, it can affect your boat.
The maintenance tips aforementioned above will ensure that an engine is in running condition to power the vessel and its service life will be prolonged.